INDONESIA including countries with the largest source of coal mines in the world. Estimated 36.3 billion tons of reserves. Only 50-85 percent of low quality. This is seen from the combustion of low calorific value and sulfur content and the water is high. Therefore, lignite coal is also known as lignite or brown coal is not economically exploited as an energy source bakar.Bila material is taken to a location remote from the mine, then the cost of transportation becomes expensive. Because the actual freight charges incurred to bring water and ash which will be discarded in the process of coal utilization.
When burned, a lot of wasted energy to evaporate water, while the value obtained by the relatively low calorie. In addition, high sulfur content which would be a pollutant gas. Therefore required additional costs to reduce emissions of sulfur gas.
With this issue, if there is a layer of lignite coal in coal mining, the miners just take a layer of high quality. While the lignite coal will be removed or dumped back at the mining site.
Utilization of lignite
Lately, with the abolition of fuel subsidies (fuel oil) that catapulted the price of fuel in Indonesia, coal starts to peep. In calculating Firdaus Akmal, president director of PT Indonesia Power, the fuel was cheaper than gasoline. When using diesel or Diesel Power Plant (PLTD), electricity prices reach Rp 500 per kWh. With coal, generating cost only about USD 50 per kWH. Will thereby save the cost of approximately Rp 30 billion per year.
However, to use coal-in this case lignite as fuel for power-specific approach is necessary, factor the problem because there are constraints, ie the water content and high sulfur.
The solution taken is to build a power plant installations near the coal mining area, so the transportation cost is minimal. It also developed technical lignite combustion process that can reduce sulfur gases into the air so that contamination of this gas can be suppressed.
Use of this lignite as a fuel for power generation at the mouth of the mine, actually had pioneered in 1997 by BPPT ja worked together with HRL (Herman Research Laboratory) Technology Australia Pty Ltd, PT Bukit Asam, the Ministry of Mines and Energy, and PT PLN. But according to Bambang Gambiro explanation, Director of Technology BPPT Energy Resources Development, told Compass last July, the project was halted in 1998 due to economic crisis.
Yet according to the plan will be tested the use of soft coal from Tanjung Enim South Sumatra and elsewhere in Indonesia, using a system of processes IDGCC (Integrated gasification Drying Combine Cycle). IDGCC technology development itself in Australia, has started since 1990.
Basic process of drying and gasification of coal to be used in a double cycle gas turbine. Because using dual combustion cycle, the energy conversion efficiency with technology IDGCC can be increased from 29 percent to 42 percent. The results of research and economic evaluation shows, the technology is feasible and economical.
10 MW power plants that use in Morwell Victoria IDGCC system capable of processing 240 tons of lignite per day. HRL research carried out among others aimed at reducing the generation cost and CO2 emissions released lignite power plants.
The effort was pioneered use of coal began again in 2002. This time it will try to use lignite in Berau, East Kalimantan. Groundbreaking Mine Mouth Power Plant construction has been undertaken Research and Technology Minister Hatta Rajasa, Regent of Berau H Masdjuni, president director of PT Berau Coal Jeffrey Mulyono, and president director of PT Indonesia Power Firdaus Akmal, at the end of July.
As stated Masdjuni, efforts to meet electricity needs for the people of this region have been programmed for a long time by the District Government of Berau. During this time the electrical energy supplied by PT PLN (Persero) Branch Cape Redep using diesel has a maximum of meeting the needs of local communities.
This is seen from the power generation that is able to produce around 5.6 MW diesel power while the peak load has reached 5.4 MW. “As a result, PLN was forced to make cuts in rotation when there is damage to the engine,” he said. Meanwhile, demand for electrical connection of 9.6 million kWh, but who met the new 7.9 million kWh. Still less about 1.6 million kWh.
Jeff said, Berau coal fired power plant is an effort to utilize the potential of the abundant lignite and reduce diesel fuel usage. Thus also will replace expensive diesel operating costs. This project also as a pilot project for other regions rich in low calorie coal.
Coal mine PT Berau Coal currently uses the power of 3.3 MW, with coal production of about 6 million tons per year. Now it needs PT Berau Coal electric power supplied from the power plant itself owned by PT Berau Coal to diesel fuel.
Eden noted, in addition to several districts of Berau in East Kalimantan has signed a MoU for the construction of similar facilities by Sangata, Malinau, and Cape Redeb. While Sands Regency also has stated his desire.
Mine Mouth Power Plant is located at the Village Sambakungan, District Mount Tabur an area known as Lati is built upon cooperation between PT Indonesia Power, Government of Berau regency, PT Berau Coal, and BPPT. The project is scheduled to be completed in August-September 2003, and its commercial operations in late 2003.
Power plant capacity of 2 × 6 MW, the clear head of the Technical Implementation Unit Energy Resources Laboratory BPPT Agus Rusjana Hoetman, – who designed the plant – use the module system so that construction can save costs about 30 percent. The cost of construction is about 10.5 million U.S. dollars.
Installing a power plant consists of two stoker boilers that can burn coal waste from the various rankings without causing problems in achieving efficiency and meet environmental requirements.
Although use of coal with high sulfur content of about 1.7 – 3 percent, but the power plant is equipped with desulfurization equipment so that the expected levels of SO2 produced no more than 750 ppm in accordance with environmental quality standards. Likewise, the effects of other pollution.
Installing a power plant operated by remote control from the control room using a microprocessor-based control system. Distribution to the public is being carried out by using the existing distribution system, namely the distribution of 20 kV, following the path of Lati substation to substation Sambaliung passing through the area around the project.
Raw materials will be transported from the coal mine owned by PT Berau Lati Coal by using the dump trucks from areas of accumulation of coal waste (reject) in Lati mine to power plant which is about 2 kilometers. The area of a coal mine in the Berau area of 15,600 hectares, which was in Binungen, Lati, Punan, and Kelai. In Lati own mining area covering 6984 hectares.
My opinion on coal for electricity generation in Indonesia,
I think the Indonesian state is very high potential for business workforce coal for electricity because of the vast territory of Indonesia origin, many of which contained abundant coal also, very good if it benefits coal for electric power because in addition to an adequate supply of coal, also can generate large voltage electricity, and enough to power demand in Indonesia,